For example, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), which began in the 1970s, matured in the 1990s into a formal organization – the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) – that intervened in various ways in conflicts in a vast region, but not by force (see Chapter 14). During the Christmas period, Diana orders a gift for her daughter online. After ordering, she receives an e-mail informing her that the item is not in stock. She calls on customer service, upset not to receive the gift before the holidays A supervisor could redefine the roles of two employees vulnerable to conflict to simply eliminate the points of friction. Creativity can also mean finding new win/win solutions. Seifert and Sutton indicate that the first three steps describe desirable ways to deal with specific situations that last only a short time. These measures alone may not be sufficient if conflicts last for long periods of time. It is often better to negotiate a solution in these situations. Negotiating is defined as the methodical examination of different options and the decision of a , if possible (Seifert & Sutton). Even though negotiations take time and energy, they often require less time or effort than continuing to solve the problem. The results of the negotiations can be valuable to all those involved in the situation.

Several conflict resolution experts have proposed different ways to negotiate with students problems that are ongoing (Seifert & Sutton). Theories differ in their peculiarities, but generally resemble the steps we discussed earlier: background studies, discussing and validating the general problem of conclusions on international conflict resolution techniques. They identify the difficulties inherent in this task and show how to make progress in the face of these obstacles. . . .